Chapter 8


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Question from Chapter 7

How is coded information passed on, and what happens to it when it is subjected to natural processes?

Now let's look at another example of coded information.

Number Code

Numbers were once coded as the following symbols made from straight lines.

Someone in the past took straight lines and arranged them to form the original number symbols.  This can be summarised, using our formula:

Matter ( -  + \ + │ + / ) + Energy + Time OI®  Number Symbols

These original symbols were clearly constructed to convey correct information about which number they referred to.  The information was stored in the number of included angles in each symbol.

ie.             one angle                         two angles, etc.

Clever, wasn't it?  But numbers don't look like the originals any more.  Present day numbers are usually written 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.  What has happened to the numeric code?  Some lazy students (who became lazy teachers), wrote them down and the symbols lost their precise shape, Z became 2.  The information, i.e. the correct number of included angles disappeared.  However, the information was preserved because they still resembled the shape that people's minds associated with the original number code.  Today you could never work out the meaning of the numbers from how the symbols are presently written.  The included angle information is no longer there. This means the number code can only be understood when teachers force students to remember what the symbols are supposed to mean.   They give you the Information from outside the symbols.

We could describe what has happened to the numeric code as:

Original Number Code + Un-Energetic Students + Time NP® New Number Code

This represents a loss of information from the actual code, but it does not mean the code has become useless.  The symbols still serve a purpose given by the original creator.  An edit-correct system in the mind has approximated the degenerate shapes with the originals and passed the now fully arbitrary information to our present day minds.  Centuries later we can still use the symbols in a meaningful way.  But the mind now supplies all the Outside Information to the code.

Supposing the present form of number symbols was left carved in stone somewhere and then forgotten by everyone.  If people discovered them centuries they later someone may recognise the symbols had been deliberately carved, but without the help of Outside Information such as a history book, they would not be able to find any meaning for them.  Look up the history of the Rosetta Stone to see how true this was in trying to decode the secrets of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics.  The information in codes always comes from outside the code itself. 

Symbolic Meanings

The Information conveyed by a code is not a Natural Property of the parts, i.e. the symbols, which make up the code.  This can also be seen when we use the same symbol to mean different things.  For example, a vertical straight line │, could be used to indicate the number "one," a lower case version of the letter "L," or an upper case version of the letter "i".   Remember the children's mystery code puzzle books with sentences like │ │││ (which meant: one eye ill).

Single Step Codes

All the above codes involve only one step, i.e. the sight of the symbol "6" suggests an immediate and related meaning - the number six.  The efficiency of a single step code is related to how complete it is.  The original number system was of limited use when it only included symbols 1 to 9.  Try writing or counting to one thousand if you only have numbers one to nine.)  The numbering code became far more efficient when a symbol for zero, 0 (which has no included angles), was created.  Then the system could go from one to ten, to hundreds and thousands much more efficiently.

In a single step code some of the symbols may be lost, but the code may still be used, although it will be less meaningful

Multi-Step Codes

Codes which involve more than one step are referred to as multi-step.  They have often been popular in the spy business.  An example:

Step 1.  The spy receives an innocent message in English, e.g. "Sam said".

Step 2.  The spy knows it has to be converted to Greek letters.

Step 3.  Because Greek letters also have a numerical value, the spy then adds up the value of each group of letters to produce two numbers.

Step 4.  The first number tells the spy the page to read in the Spy Manual.  The second number tells which line to read for the message from headquarters.

Notice how each step in the code requires some extra information that is completely separate from the original code symbols, e.g. knowledge of Greek, the structure of the spy manual.  It is easy to decide what will happen to such a complex multi-step system if one step is missing.  No-one would be able to find out what the final message was.

This leads to the following conclusion: In a multi-step code system all steps must be present prior to the code being used or no step will work!

Summary of Man Made Codes

1. All codes have involved the application of Outside Information to the code symbols.

2. The Information (I) conveyed by the Product (P), i.e. the code, is not due to any Natural Properties of the Chapters (p), i.e. the symbols, which make up the code.

3. The Information (I) in a created code is in the arrangement of the Chapters, therefore there is more Information in the completed Product (P) code than in the symbols or Chapters (p) of the code.  This can be expressed in a formula:  IP > Ip.

4. The symbols used in a created code are determined by the creator and are totally arbitrary.

5. Single step code systems are inefficient until completed.

6. In a multi-step code system, all steps must be present or no step will work.

7. There are no observed examples where Matter + Energy + Time under the influence of the Natural Properties of the universe have resulted in a code.

8. Once a code has been created, the Natural Properties of the system have been observed to produce loss of information, but never a gain of information.


Do these principles apply to DNA code?


All other known codes used to convey information have only come into existence by intelligent human beings assigning meanings to code symbols.  The meaning assigned to the symbols is determined by those who created and use the code.  It was not generated by the symbols themselves.

Codes can only convey information if those sending and those receiving it both understand the meaning of the symbols.  In a multi-step code additional information must exist in the minds of those using it, before it can convey useful information.

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